Romania’s integration as a member of the European Union, on January 1, 2007, was one of the main foreign policy objectives of the Romanian state after 1990. This desideratum was assumed at public level by central institutions and famous personalities of the Romanian state, being both a ample collective effort of the Romanians, reports Agerpres.
The process of Romania’s accession to the European Union began on February 1, 1993, on the occasion of the signing of the European Agreement establishing an association between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and Romania, on the other. The agreement recognized Romania’s goal of becoming a member of the European Union and provided financial and technical assistance from it, according to www.mae.ro and https://ec.europa.eu.
On June 22, 1995, in Paris, the Romanian Minister of Foreign Affairs Theodor Melescanu submitted Romania’s official application for membership in the European Union. The application for membership was attached to the document “National Strategy for Preparing Romania’s Accession to the European Union”, signed in Snagov on June 21, 1995, by parliamentary party leaders, the presidents of the two Chambers of the Romanian Parliament and President Ion Iliescu.
The European Council was held at the Palais des Festivals in Cannes on 27 June 1995, on the occasion of the approval of the general framework of Community legislation in the field of the internal market and of the requirements that the associated states, including Romania, were to adopt. for the harmonization of Community and national legislation.
On 30 June 1995, in Brussels, Romania signed the Additional Protocol to the Association Agreement, which finalized the legal framework for the participation of the Romanian state in Community programs in the economic, technical, scientific and cultural fields. This moment represented the completion of Romania’s associated state status in the European Union.
The application of the provisions of the European Association Agreement and the preparation of the process of Romania’s accession to the European Union were undertaken by the Interministerial Committee for European Integration, which started its activity on August 14, 1995.
On June 27, 1997, on the occasion of the European Union summit in Amsterdam, the candidate states were also invited to participate, Romania being represented by a delegation led by President Emil Constantinescu.
On 15 July 1997, the European Commission published Agenda 2000, a package of measures, setting out the way forward for accession. The document, structured in three parts, referred to the future of Community policies, the enlargement of the European Union and the financial perspectives of the European Union for the period 2000-2006. Attached to it were the Commission’s opinions, based on the Copenhagen criteria, on the applications for membership made by Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The Commission has carried out assessments for each country on the degree of fulfillment of the accession conditions, Romania not being included in the category of countries recommended to start accession negotiations.
The Government of Romania has implemented the National Program for Romania’s accession to the European Union in the medium term, a program presented on May 21, 1998, in the government meeting, by Alexandru Herlea, the Minister Delegate to the Prime Minister for European Integration. The program was discussed in the plenary of the two Houses of Parliament and was transmitted to the European Commission on 25 June 1998.
The European Commission proposed, on 13 October 1999, the start of accession negotiations with the European Union with Malta, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Romania.
On the occasion of the European summit in Helsinki, on December 10-11, 1999, the leaders of the 15 member states voted, on the first day of the works, to start the accession negotiations of the six states, including Romania, stating that the moment of accession it will occur when the states have met the conditions for accession.
The opening of Romania’s accession negotiations with the European Union took place in Brussels, on February 15, 2000, during the Romania-European Union Intergovernmental Conference, at the level of the foreign ministers of the 15 member states.
The Ministry of European Integration sent, on June 29, 2001, to Brussels, to the European Commission, the 2001 edition of the National Program of Romania’s Accession to the EU, indicating the stage of preparation of the Romanian state for accession, the developments in fulfilling each criterion. field of activity.
The European Parliament voted on 5 September 2001 the report prepared by the rapporteur for Romania, Emma Nicholson, on Romania’s accession status to the European Union. The evaluation of the process of preparation for Romania ‘s accession to the EU bloc was the subject of a visit by the European Commissioner for Enlargement, Guenter Verheugen, to Bucharest on February 20-21, 2003.
On 11 March 2004, the European Parliament voted, with 374 votes in favor, 10 against and 29 abstentions, the report on Romania’s and Bulgaria’s candidacy to join the European Union.
The ceremony for the largest enlargement of the Community bloc to date took place in Dublin on 1 May 2004, when the European Union received ten new Member States – Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia , Slovenia, Hungary.
Romania concludes, from a technical point of view, the negotiations for accession to the European Union on December 8, 2004, in Brussels, by provisionally closing the last two chapters: “Competition Policy” (Chapter 6) and “Justice and Home Affairs” ( Chapter 24), during the Romania-EU accession conference.
The European Commission confirmed, on December 14, 2004, at the XII Intergovernmental Conference on Romania’s Accession to the EU, held in Brussels, the provisional closure of the 31 negotiating chapters, so that later the political decision to close to be negotiated by the European Council at its winter meeting.
The European Parliament voted on December 16, 2004, the report on Romania ‘s progress towards accession to the European Union, recommending the signing of the Accession Treaty in the spring of 2005 and its effective accession, together with Bulgaria, on January 1, 2007.
On the occasion of the European Council, of 17-18 December 2004, the European leaders approved the signing in April 2005 of the Treaty of Accession of Romania and Bulgaria to the EU, and the accession as full rights states of the two countries to take place in 2007, with the obligation continuing reforms and fulfilling commitments.
On April 13, 2005, in Strasbourg, the European Parliament voted, with 497 votes in favor, 93 against and 71 abstentions, the assent for the signing of the Treaty of Accession of Romania to the European Union.
The Romanian delegation, led by President Traian Băsescu, participated, on April 25, 2005, in Luxembourg, in the ceremony of signing the treaty of Romania’s accession to the institutions of the European Union.
On 25 October 2005, in Strasbourg, the European Commissioner for Enlargement, Olli Rehn, presented to the European Parliament the positions of the European Commission on the level of accession achieved by Bulgaria and Romania.
The European Commission presented on September 26, 2006, in Strasbourg, the comprehensive monitoring report of Romania and Bulgaria, which stated for the first time that Bulgaria and Romania are ready to join on January 1, 2007.
Slovakia was the first state to ratify the Treaty of Accession of Romania and Bulgaria to the European Union on June 21, 2005, and on November 24, 2006, Germany completed this necessary process.
The Brussels European Council (14-15 December 2006) confirmed the accession of Romania and Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007.
After receiving in the European Union, Romania has representatives in all European institutions, Romanian citizens benefit from the rights conferred by European citizenship. Romanian has become one of the official languages of the European Union, all Community documents being translated into Romanian.
Romania has so far held three European Parliamentary elections: on November 25, 2007, for the election of 35 Romanian MEPs, on June 7, 2009, for the 33 seats of the European Parliament and on May 25, 2014, for the 32 seats.
So far, Romania has had four European Commissioners. Leonard Orban was Romania’s first European commissioner, taking over the Multilingualism portfolio on January 1, 2007 and managing a budget of approximately 1.2 billion euros. He had 3,400 subordinates. The multilingualism portfolio included translations, interpretation and the Office for Official Publications of the European Union. His term of office ended on 9 February 2010.
Dacian Cioloş was the second European Commissioner from Romania, managing the Agriculture and Rural Development portfolio. He was appointed on February 9, 2010. He had allocated about 50 billion euros for 2010, almost a third of the European Union budget. His term of office ended on 1 November 2014.
Corina Cretu was the third European Commissioner for Romania, from November 1, 2014 until 2019, coordinating the Regional Policy portfolio. From June to October 2014, he served as Vice-President of the European Parliament, according to https://ebn.eu.
Adina-Ioana Vălean is the fourth European Commissioner for Romania, managing the Transport portfolio at EU level, starting in 2019. She was a Member of the European Parliament from 2007-2019 and Vice-President of the European Parliament (2014-2017), according to https: / /ec.europa.eu/.
Romania has the right to vote in all meetings of the Council of the European Union.
In the European Parliament, in the 2019-2024 legislature, the citizens of Romania are represented by 33 MEPs, elected by direct vote following the elections held on May 26, 2019. The mandate from 2019-2024 is the fourth for the elected MEPs from Romania and the third full term, 5 years.
Within the community institutions, Romania is represented by: a judge at the Court of Justice of the European Communities – Octavia Spineanu-Matei (October 7, 2021-October 6, 2027); a judge at the Tribunal of the European Union – Mirela Stancu (September 1, 2019 – August 31, 2022); one member in the Court of Accounts – Viorel Ştefan, 15 members in the Economic and Social Committee and 15 members in the Committee of the Regions, according to www.mae.ro. Also, the National Bank of Romania is part of the European System of Central Banks, and its governor participates, as a full member, in the General Council of the European Central Bank and in its committees.
Romania has held, for the first time since joining the European Union, between January 1 and June 30, 2019, the rotating presidency of the Council of the European Union, a mandate that coincided with the end of the legislative and institutional cycle at EU level because in the middle of the first semester The elections for the European Parliament took place in 2019, and the process of political reflection on the future of the Union represented by the Summit held in Sibiu on May 9, 2019, followed by the definition of the Union’s Strategic Agenda for 2019-2024 and the process to redefine the leadership of the European institutions, according to mae.ro.
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